Our best wishes to you and your families. I hope this holiday that you take time for an extra hug for your family and friends. I hope this holiday you will…
Love not hate
Leave politics locked in a drawer at home
Find common ground of agreement, don’t focus on things that we disagree on.
Wish everyone you meet with season’s greetings.
Give to a charity(ies) that help the less fortunate.
Don’t have a heart attack while shoveling snow or watching football.
Not feel you have to drink to have a good time.
Call you distant friends and family with greetings.
Put the world’s problems on pause.
Laugh and smile.
I hope you have a wonderful holiday. May this beautiful holiday season fill your heart with love, your home with joy, and your life with laughter. Happy Holidays! Wishing you and your family love, peace, and joy!
On page E1 of the Saturday, November 27, 2021 issue of The Dallas Morning News, Ms. Tyra Damm authored an article entitled “Books expand our world, make life richer.” Ms. Damm is a Briefing columnist for the paper. Her article describes how reading books influenced her and how “books were [her] friends, my anchor, my escape.”
I thought one particular paragraph was very important.
Where fear drives us to limit ideas available to other people, we are narrowing potential for emotional growth and tangible progress, cutting off access to the power of empathy. When we read authors from different backgrounds and with divergent points of view, we ask deeper questions, make connections, solidify our beliefs or even adjust them if so moved.
Ms. Tyra Damm, “Books expand our world, make life richer, ” The Dallas Morning News, November 27, 2021, p. E1.
The first large burning came on 6 May 1933. The German Student Union made an organized attack on Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld’s Institute of Sex Research. Its library and archives of around 20,000 books and journals were publicly hauled out and burned in the street. Its collection included unique works on intersexuality, homosexuality, and transgender topics.
On May 10, 1933, the students burned upwards of 25,000 volumes of “un-German” books in the square at the State Opera, Berlin. This action began an era of inflexible state censorship. In many other university towns, nationalist students marched in torch-lit parades against the “un-German” spirit. The scripted rituals of this night called for high Nazi officials, professors, rectors, and student leaders to address the participants and spectators. At the meeting places, students threw the pillaged, banned books into the bonfires with a great joyous ceremony that included live music, singing, “fire oaths,” and incantations. In Berlin, around 40,000 people heard Joseph Goebbels deliver a fiery address: “No to decadence and moral corruption!” Goebbels told the crowd. “Yes [sic] to decency and morality in family and state! I consign to the flames the writings of Heinrich Mann, Ernst Glaeser, Erich Kästner.”
All of the following types of literature, as described by the Nazis, were to be banned:
The works of traitors, emigrants, and authors from foreign countries who believe they can attack and denigrate the new Germany
The literature of Marxism, Communism, and Bolshevism.
Literature with liberal, democratic tendencies and attitudes
All historical writings whose purpose is to denigrate the origin, the spirit, and the culture of the German People, or to dissolve the racial and structural order of the Volk, or that denies the force and importance of leading historical figures in favor of egalitarianism and the masses, and which seeks to drag them through the mud.
Books that advocate “art” which is decadent, bloodless, or purely constructivist
Writings on sexuality and sexual education which serve the egocentric pleasure of the individual and destroy the principles of race and Volk
Literature by Jewish authors, regardless of the field.
Popular entertainment literature that depicts life and life’s goals in a superficial, unrealistic, and sickly-sweet manner, based on a bourgeois or upper-class view of life.
Naiveimitation of patriotic literature.
Pornography and explicit literature
All books that degrade German purity.
Many German students were complicit in the Nazi book burning campaign. They were known as Deutsche Studentenschaft, and when they ran out of books in their libraries they turned to independent bookstores. Libraries were also asked to stock their shelves with material that stood up to Hitler’s standards and destroy anything that did not.
Fast forward to Texas in 2021. In November, Texas Governor Greg Abbott (Republican) told education officials that the Texas Association of School Boards had “attempted to wash its hands clean of the issue by abdicating all responsibility in the matter” to monitor and remove unacceptable books from classrooms and school and public libraries.
Abbott said: “Given this negligence, the State of Texas now calls on you to do what the Texas Association of School Boards refuses to do,” that the standards the entities develop “must ensure transparency about the materials being taught in the classroom and offered in school libraries.”
The heads of the Texas Education Commission (TEA) and State Board of Education (SBOE) said they would work alongside the other to develop those statewide standards as requested by the governor.
The Texas Education Commission “takes seriously” Abbott’s “call for action on this matter of great importance to families of Texas public school students.” The SBOE said Texas public school families “should have the reassurance that their children are not at risk of being confronted with pornographic and obscene material when they are in school.”
Texas State Representative Matt Krause (Fort Worth Republican) launched an inquiry on the question of inappropriate content in public schools and libraries in certain school districts over the types of books students can access. Krause included a roughly 850-book list that included novels about racism and sexuality and asked the districts to identify which of those books were available on school campuses.
Krause asked districts whether they had those books and how much money was spent on them but declined to offer specifics and said he does not want to “compromise” a pending or potential investigation as chair of the House General Investigating Committee.
The following topic list includes some sample titles that discuss:
Abortion – Roe vs. Wade, Coping with Birth Control, A Question of Choice, and Abortion: opposing viewpoints
Sexuality – Everything you need to know about growing up femaleEverything you need to know about growing up male,The Handmaid’s Tale: The Graphic Novel, LGBT families, and Gender equality
Teen Sex – Teens & sex, Safe sex 101: an overview for teens, S.E.X.: the all-you-need-to-know progressive sexuality guide to get you through high school and college, Do abstinence programs work?Sexually transmitted diseases, and Sexually transmitted infections
Sexual Orientation – The LGBT community, Sexual orientation, Coming out: telling family and friends, A new generation of homosexuality: modern trends in gay and lesbian communities, Identity & gender, and Rainbow revolutionaries: 50 LGBTQ+ people who made history
Racism – What’s racism?The Black power movement and civil unrest, So you want to talk about race, This book is anti-racist : 20 lessons on how to wake up, take action, and do the work, Me and White Supremacy: Combat Racism, Change the World, and Become a Good Ancestor, #BlackLivesMatter : protesting racism, and Race and policing in modern America.
These books allow important discussions about teens that teens are dealing with: Sexuality (Internal conflicts about gender identification and hate crimes against LGBTs), Sexuality and Teen Sex (Just when their hormones are in overdrive these conversations are critical in dealing with family, religion, biology, male and female characteristics changes, and teen pregnancy), Racism (How can we expect to reconcile treatment of minorities if this topic is not discussed in the classroom? How can society rid itself of hate when teens are prohibited from understanding their prejudices and unequal treatment?), and Abortion – This is a major issue facing our society and teens need to understand its origin, femininity and masculinity, and physical and mental crises young people often face alone).
Currently, some districts in Texas ban: The Tell-tale Heart (Edgar Allan Poe), I Hate My Bow (Hans Wilhelm), To Kill a Mockingbird (Harper Lee), Pugdog (Andrea U’Ren), Drama (Raina Telgemeier), Hunger Games (Suzanne Collins), Brave New World (Aldous Huxley), The Lovely Bones (Alice Sebold) Underpants (Dav Pilkey), and Mirriam-Webster’s Visual Dictionary.
A Dallas Morning News and the University of Texas at Tyler conducted a poll about the Texas government’s role in “identifying which books should be removed.” The results indicated that 35% of respondents have “no confidence” and 31% said “that they had “not too much” confidence. Less than 10% of the respondents said they “trusted state leaders’ judgment on books “a great deal.”
Perhaps by including books and discussing the issues we can prevent suicide, unprepared and unmarried teenage parents, beating an LBGT teen, and harassing a bright classmate who happens to be Asian or Jewish, and stopping a bombing of a church, mosque, or synagogue.
The different and diverse beliefs which are threatening our democracy illustrate the failure to develop solutions that partially satisfy both Democrats and Republicans. This reminded me of the inherent skills of people. Not all of us are rocket scientists or brain surgeons. I have compiled the following “natural laws” to illustrate my point.
… love instead of hate.
… either understand algebra or don’t.
… believe in science while others dismiss it.
… want good lives for everyone but others don’t care for anyone except themselves.
… are professional football receivers and others cannot catch a balloon.
… can speak many languages and for some mastering their native language is difficult.
… have artistic skills in art and music while some folks cannot draw stick figures or play chopsticks.
… believe that God has given us the skills to address life’s challenges and some people stand in the middle of a busy street waiting for God to rescue them.
… select clothes that make them more attractive while others wear two different socks.
… can write books and others think books are something to stand on to reach higher.
… can fix almost everything while others buy tools for the women in their life.
… can cook while others eat fast foods.
… like asparagus while others think that it should be extinct.
… are Republicans and some are Democrats.
… are peacemakers while others are always itching for a fight.
… like the beach and others like the mountains.
… like their steaks rare while others like them burned to a crisp.
… are vegetarians while others are carnivores.
… love Cocoa-Cola and some prefer Pepsi-Cola.
… some choices are politically correct while others could care less.
I could go on, but in the interest of your time and mine, I will end.
It is good to have different beliefs and choices. The problems exist because some people try, often in vain, to persuade people they are correct, and they should embrace their preferences. Others refuse to respect other peoples’ views, understand why they feel this way, and refuse to meet in the middle and compromise.
This is an issue that plagues America, increases our differences, and locks people into unescapable positions. For our civilization to survive, we must listen, respect, and understand each other’s position. This is the first step in seeking common ground to show us that we are not as different as we thought.
I don’t know when or why I stopped. Neither do I know when I began. Since I stopped singing the time spent during my showers has decreased dramatically.
Singing was a type of relaxation for me. However, my college roommates and landlords didn’t share my enthusiasm.
Today my showers are methodical contact between soap, washcloth, and skin. I have gone from pleasure to worry. Now my showers are focused on worries, problem solving, and schedule. Oh, what a loss to me and a joy to music lovers.
It’s a widely acknowledged phenomenon that people’s singing voices significantly improve when they’re in the shower. Have you ever been singing whilst having a scrub and thought to yourself, ‘wow, I actually sound pretty good!’ only to mortify yourself on stage that evening at the karaoke bar, as you discover that you still sound like a drowning rat when you try to hit those high notes in Dancing Queen?
It’s all to do with reverberation and acoustics. Reverberation is the process by which sounds blend together, and the structure of your typical shower provides the ideal environment for this. Essentially, the shower acts as a mixer that modifies your voice, making it sound better. It does this in three ways.
First of all, the volume of your voice is reflected off the hard and smooth surfaces of the bathroom, so it doesn’t fade as quickly as it would in an open space. Secondly, as the sound bounces around the shower, creating reverb – your voice ‘hangs’ in the air longer than usual, giving it an embellished, rich sound. Reverb also evens out pitch as it reverberates off so many surfaces, so even if you’re not hitting those notes, it sounds more like you are when you’re in the shower. Finally, the shower itself acts as a ‘resonant cavity’, naturally amplifying certain frequencies of sounds.
Dear readers, what is your experience with warbling? I have several questions for you.
Do you sing in the shower?
If you do, what songs do you sing?
Do your family, roommates, and friends like, tolerate, or hate your performances?
Is a good singing voice necessary to be a shower songbird?
Do teenagers sing in the shower?
Have electronic devices taken the place of shower vocalists?
Does this blog entry encourage to return to singing or discourage you from returning or beginning shower recitals?
Recently I read a story in the Dallas Morning News about the terrible behavior of people opposed to their school district’s regulations. A young student was beginning to speak about his grandfather’s death when a number of attendees at the school district meeting interrupted the speaker’s two-minute allotment showering the young man with boos, slurs, and signs opposing the speaker’s statement. The simple mention of his grandfather’s death was met with insulting “adult” behavior . My issue with the disruption was not the pros and cons about the issue being discussed but with the violation of the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights. The amendment clearly states that:
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
Apparently, the angry members recalled the “freedom to peaceably assemble” portion but not the “freedom of speech” part of the amendment. Their behavior violated the freedom of speech part of the amendment.
Maybe the angry attendees felt their outbursts were provided by the First Amendment which gave them the right to speak. However, they refused to allow this Constitutional right to the young man’s speech. Freedom to speak allows/encourages people to speak, it doesn’t say one side should be allowed to speak but not the opposing side.
Perhaps, their behavior was only being impolite, rude, and disruptive. However, their actions brought the unwelcome attention of the media. They embarrassed their school district, town, state, and others who supported their view.
“Liberty is meaningless where the right to utter one’s thoughts and opinions has ceased to exist.” – Frederick Douglas
“The right to free speech is more important than the content of the speech” – Voltaire
Freedom of speech includes the right:
Not to speak.
Of students to wear black armbands to school to protest a war.
To use certain offensive words and phrases to convey political messages.
To contribute money (under certain circumstances) to political campaigns.
To advertise commercial products and professional services (with some restrictions).
To engage in symbolic speech, (e.g., burning the flag in protest).
Freedom of speech does not include the right:
To incite actions that would harm others (e.g., “[S]hout[ing] ‘fire’ in a crowded theater.”).
To make or distribute obscene materials.
To burn draft cards as an anti-war protest.
To permit students to print articles in a school newspaper over the objections of the school administration.
Of students to make an obscene speech at a school-sponsored event.
Of students to advocate illegal drug use at a school-sponsored event.
I am delighted to announce the publication of my story, “Two-Front War” on pp. 50-53 of the November 2021 edition of America’s Civil War. The story is based on my research in connection with my biography of General C. F. Smith. Teacher of Civil War Generals – Major General Charles Ferguson Smith, Soldier and West Point Commandant published by McFarland Publishing. The article focuses on Smith’s assignment in Paducah, Kentucky under General Ulysses Grant. During his time in Paducah, a citizen waved a Confederate flag from his residence, The Lloyd Tilghman House. Smith followed Grant’s orders not to disturb peaceful citizens, but the 11th Illinois thought the flag should come down. This resulted in a near mutiny in Smith’s command and widespread criticism as a Southern Sympathizer. The story reveals how Civil War officers often had to fight on two fronts: the enemy and culprits in their command.
This story led to an article in the magazine’s Grapeshot column (p. 10) about the role General Smith played in the capture of Fort Donelson. Most discussions focus on Grant’s victory and “contributions” made by other officers. Sometimes, these officers are not mentioned, but Generals Grant and Halleck credited Smith with the victory. Smith’s leadership and bravery at Fort Donelson earned him confirmation as a major general by the Union Senate.
Imagine my surprise when my Editor Chris Howland sent me two copies of the issue addressed to Allen Mesch “Contributing Editor.”
The United States military has demonstrated one of its duties during the evacuation of Americans and Afghans who supported U.S. forces. This task was extremely difficult and resulted in the loss of thirteen soldiers. This is not the first time U.S. forces have evacuated Americans and those citizens that supported us. This happened in the Vietnam War. The same evacuation of soldiers and people who assisted us occurred then. However, there are differences between Vietnam and Afghanistan. The Taliban are ruthless religious zealots, and the North Vietnamese were led by a popular revolutionary. During the Vietnamese War, there were protests on college campuses and soldiers were spit upon and called “baby killers.” I don’t recall any protests about the war in the twenty years U.S. troops were in Afghanistan. The soldiers who died in the attack on the Kabul airport were honored as heroes. Both of these conflicts suffered from political interference and questionable decisions. When we send our military abroad, the government should allow the troops to pursue their mission without interference. Let the warriors fight the war, don’t let them be constrained by ever-changing political rules that corrupt and confuse their mission.
So, what is the mission of the U.S. military? Is it winning wars or something else?
The mission statements of the military and its branches provide insight into their responsibilities.
The military fights under the authority of the United States Department of Defense. The Department of Defense is responsible for providing the military forces needed to deter war and protect the security of our country. The major elements of these forces are the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force, consisting of about 1.7 million men and women on active duty. During the Civil War, the department was called the War Department. It obtained its new name the “Department of Defense” on August 10, 1949.
The mission of the United States military is to preserve peace and security and provide for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions, and any areas occupied by the United States, support national policies, implement national objectives, and overcome any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United States
The Marine Corps mission statement describes the corps as “America’s expeditionary force in readiness since 1775. We are forward deployed to respond swiftly and aggressively in times of crisis. We are soldiers of the sea, providing forces and detachments to naval ships and shore operations.”
The United States Army’s mission statement is to preserve peace and security and provide for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions, and any areas occupied by the United States. This mission charges the Army with supporting national policies, implementing national objectives, and overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United States.
The U.S. Navy recognizes that the United States is a maritime nation. The Navy’s mission is to protect America at sea. Alongside our allies and partners, the Navy defends freedom, preserves economic prosperity, and keeps the seas open and free. Our nation is engaged in long-term competition. To defend American interests around the globe, the U.S. Navy must remain prepared to execute our timeless role, as directed by Congress and the President.
The one unifying task in these mission statements is defense. The military is charged with protecting, preserving peace, providing security, defending freedom, supporting national policies, implementing national objectives, and overcoming nations responsible for aggressive acts that endanger the peace and security of the United States. There is no mention of making war or defeating an enemy of the United States.
I salute your bravery in protecting Americans and our allies in Afghanistan and around the world. Your achievements bestow upon you honor and respect. Thank you for your service.
The Third Rebellion is a novel about political and social unrest in the United States of America. The Third Rebellion is not a prediction of future events, political manifesto, condemnation of American society, denunciation of a political party, or call to action. It is a story about an American revolution or rebellion which the author created from personal observations during the past ten years.
As I considered writing a novel about a possible third Civil War, I sought events that could lead to such an uprising. There are many incidents in the United States including: increased violence, widespread racism, restriction of voting rights, decreased gun control, limitation of women’s rights, anti-immigrant polices, police violence on Blacks, refusal to accept voting results, and unconstitutional measures limiting free speech and voting rights. The combination of these occurrences could lead to rebellion as predicted by leaders and historians.
If we are to have another contest in the near future of our national existence, I predict that the dividing line will not be Mason and Dixon’s but between patriotism and intelligence on one side, and superstition, ambition and ignorance on the other.
Ulysses S. Grant
… if destruction be our lot we must ourselves be its author and finisher. As a nation of free men we will live forever or die by suicide.
If a separation of the states ever should take place, it will be on some occasion when one portion of the country undertakes to control, to regulate and to sacrifice the interest of another.
H. W. Brands
If particular care and attention is not paid to the ladies, we are determined to foment a rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any laws in which we have no voice or representation”
Please check future posts for more information on The Third Rebellion.
Today April 18 is National Columnists Day. Dallas Morning News columnist Dave Lieber picked the date. On that day in 1945, the “finest columnist of the 20th century” was killed in battle. Lieber celebrated the day and the man in his column in today’s edition of the News.
Ernie Pyle began writing about World War II in England. In 1940, he covered the Battle of Britain. He returned to Europe in 1942 as a war correspondent for Scripps-Howard newspapers. Beginning in North Africa in late 1942, Pyle spent time with the U.S. military during the North African Campaign, the Italian campaign, and the Normandy landings. He was assigned to cover the Asiatic-Pacific Theater in January 1945. Pyle was covering the invasion of Okinawa when he was killed in April 1945.
As a war correspondent, he wrote from the perspective of the common soldier; explaining how the war affected the men instead of reporting on troop movements or the activities of generals. His descriptions of or reactions to an event in simple, informal stories are what set Pyle’s writing apart and made him famous during the war.
Mr. Lieber wrote about Pyle’s personal difficulties with his wife. She suffered with mental problems and was subjected to shock treatments.
In contrast, Lieber described his 26-year marriage partnership. His wife accompanied him on assignments often under cover to obtain the information Lieber used in his columns. She also checked his writing before it was sent to the paper.
When I read about Dave’s marriage, I noted the 54-year partnership with my own wife. She has accompanied me to over 150 American Civil War sites, proof-read my manuscripts and blogs, helped me at book signings, and provided much needed comfort and understanding of my frustration with computers, publishers, politicians.
Thank you Dave, for reminding me of how much my bride has supported me all these years.
And, yes she proofread this document and corrected three of my errors.
I am pleased to announce that the Texas History Blog has published my post on Ebenezer Allen’s role in Texas’ annexation to the United States. The post explains Allen’s work as Secretary of State ad interim in Anson Jones’ cabinet.
Please visit The Texas History Blogto learn more about the Republic’s and State’s history. The blog is managed by James Aalan Bernsen. James is an eighth-generation Texan, He was born in San Antonio, within a mile of the Alamo. He received his B.A. in Journalism and German from Texas A&M University and his M.A. in United States History from Texas State University.
Ebenezer Allen was born on April 8, 1804, in Newport, New Hampshire. He was the first child of David and Hannah Allen. David Allen moved to Newport from Killingworth, Connecticut around 1800. Allen was born on May 13, 1777, in Killingworth. Around 1803, David married Hannah Wilcox who July 12, 1780. The Allens lived on a large farm on the Goshen Road in Newport. Mr. Allen ran an inn and tavern, which were popular stops when the Croydon Turnpike was an important commercial road.
Other children joined the Allen family several years after Ebenezer. David Allen Jr. was born in 1806, Uriah Wilcox Allenin 1807, and Elvira Allen in 1809. The 1810 census lists nine people in the David Allen household. There were three males under ten: Ebenezer (6), David (4), and Uriah Wilcox (3); one white female under 10: Elvira (1); one white male 16-25, one white female 16-25, one white male 26-44: David Allen, one white female 26-44: Hannah; and one white female over 45. The Allen family continued to grow with the births of Nahum Wilcox Allen in 1812, Hannah Cordelia Allen in 1814, Roxanna Allen in 1817, Samuel Johnson Allen in 1819, Harriet Allen in 1821, Albert G Allen in 1823, and William Allen in 1825. By 1830, Ebenezer had four sisters and six brothers.
As the eldest child, Ebenezer had many responsibilities in the Allen farm and businesses. Farm parents expected their children to contribute to the family’s productivity. Small children helped with simple, unskilled tasks. As the children grew and gained skills, their work became more difficult. Farm boys always had work because of the daily need for firewood and water. Boys cared for the livestock and guarded the animals in the pasture. The children assisted their parents in preparing the fields for planting and sowing the seeds in the furrows. At harvest, they helped gather the crops. Boys hunted and fished for recreation and to supply food for the family. Like other oldest sons, Ebenezer was “early made acquainted with labor.”
David and Hannah Allen believed in education and their children attended the “common schools” in Newport. The Allens enrolled their children in the Newport Academy after the school opened on June 24, 1819. The citizens of Newport and neighboring towns organized the school to give their children a “more advanced education than was to be had at our common schools” and “to fit them for college.”. The school had “ample rooms nicely fitted up.”
After school and their chores, the Allen children may have played Copenhagen, button, hunt the slipper, blind man’s bluff, and the grace-hoop.
Most of Ebenezer’s brothers and sisters stayed in New England. David Allen, Jr. became a lawyer. Uriah W. Allen moved to Stonington, Connecticut, where he was a farmer. Uriah was married twice and had one son, Albert. Alvira Allen married Philo Fuller a “manufacturer” from Newport. The Fullers had five children Eugene, Nelson, Allen, Ellen, and Edith. Nahum W. Allen went west as a teacher and became a clergyman. He had a daughter, Harriet.
On April 8, 2021, the City of Allen Texas celebrated the 217th birthday of its namesake Ebenezer Allen.
 The Croydon Turnpike Road was incorporated on June 21, 1804. The road went from Lebanon to, Grantham, Croydon, Newport, and Lempster. The road connected to the Second New Hampshire Turnpike in Washington, 34 miles, at an expense of $35,948. The Second New Hampshire Turnpike was chartered in 1799 and completed in 1801. This was the connecting route between Boston and Vermont. accessed February 6, 2017, New Hampshire’s Turnpike History, http://www.cowhampshireblog.com/2006/08/23/new-hampshires-turnpike-history/.
 Year: 1810; Census Place: Newport, Cheshire, New Hampshire; Roll: 23; Page: 201; Image: 00144; Family History Library Film: 0218684, accessed May 20, 2016.
 Descendants of Gideon Allen, Courtesy of Judith M. Johnson, Johnson-Morrow Family Tree, accessed May 20, 2016, Ancestry.com.
 James M. Volo and Dorothy Denneen Volo, Family Life in 19th-Century America. (Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007), .
 A common school was a public school in the United States during the nineteenth century. Horace Mann (1796−1859) was a strong advocate for public education and the common school. In 1837, the state of Massachusetts appointed Mann as the first secretary of the State Board of Educationwhere he began a revival of common school education, the effects of which extended throughout America during the 19th century. Wikipedia contributors, “Common school,” Wikipedia contributors, “Common school,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Common_school&oldid=871899693 (accessed August 21, 2019).
March 30 is National Pencil Day. On this day in 1858, Hymen Lipman received a patent for attaching an eraser to the end of a pencil. For all of us erring humans, thank you.
I do the daily crossword and sudoku puzzles with a pencil so I can use Lipman’s device to correct my errors. I also use a pencil for craft and carpentry measurements. However, I use my computer for writing complete with Grammarly reviews.
Some writers like the sound and feel of a typewriter. Others like the convenience and spontaneity of a pencil. Notebooks are changing this reason.
Thanks to my efforts the Mayor of Allen, Texas has designated April 8 as Ebenezer Allen Day.
Mayor Ken Fulk read the proclamation at the March 23, 2021 City Council meeting.
Office of the Mayor
City of Allen
WHEREAS, The City of Allen, Texas is named for Ebenezer Allen, who served as the Republic of Texas Attorney General and interim Secretary of State; and
WHEREAS, Ebenezer Allen worked with the Republic of Texas’ President Anson Jones in the annexation of Texas to the United States of America; and
WHEREAS, Ebenezer Allen obtained the charter for the Galveston and Red River Railway Company, later known as the Houston and Texas Central Railroad. The first locomotive of the Company was named after him as was the first station at present-day Allen, Texas; and
WHEREAS, the Allen City Council celebrates its namesake on the 217th birthday of Ebenezer Allen and recognizes the important role he had in establishing our community.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, KENNETH M. FULK, MAYOR OF THE CITY OF ALLEN, COLLIN COUNTY, TEXAS, proclaim April 8, 2021, as:
“EBENEZER ALLEN DAY”
in Allen, Texas, and I urge all citizens to take cognizance of this event and participate in all the events related thereto in this community.
Kenneth M. Fulk, MAYOR
After Mayor Fulk read the proclamation, he invited me to say a few words about Mr. Allen’s life.
After the meeting, I talked to representatives from the Heritage Guide of Allen about helping with any future events commemorating the day. They were interested in the idea and I am hopeful that the City of Allen may stage some activity to celebrate Ebenezer Allen’s birthday on April 8, 1804 in Newport, New Hampshire.
Allen presenting copy of Ebenezer Allen – Statesman, Entrepreneur, and Spy to Mayor Fulk
While writing another post, I was searching for a quote from President Harry S. Truman. I found several quotations that illustrate how he put the country before his prejudices and his political party. Truman, who made civil rights a federal priority for the first time since Reconstruction, was a bigoted man who expressed strong racist sentiments before, during, and after his presidency.
In 1911, Truman wrote to his future wife, Bess: ″I think one man is just as good as another so long as he’s honest and decent and not a n—r or a Chinaman (Chinese). Uncle Will (Truman’s uncle) says that the Lord made a white man from dust, a n—r from mud, then He threw up what was left and it came down a Chinaman (Chinese).″
″(Uncle Will) does hate Chinese and Japs (Japanese),″ Truman continued. ″So do I. It is race prejudice, I guess. But I am strongly of the opinion Negroes ought to be in Africa, yellow men in Asia, and white men in Europe and America.″
In 1937, Senator Truman wrote a letter to his daughter describing waiters at The White House as ″an army of coons.″ In a letter to his wife in 1939, he described an event (possibly a Juneteenth celebration) as ″ n—r picnic day.″
Truman’s attitudes toward race were formed as a boy in Missouri. His grandparents owned slaves and his mother was imprisoned by Union troops during the Civil War and she remained ″violently unreconstructed″ for the rest of her life. Truman formed ″an abiding belief in white supremacy,″ Although Truman decreased his racist expressions after entering the White House, he continued to use racial slurs in private conversation for the rest of his life.
However, instead of governing under these principles, he acted in the “best interests” of the country. ″Whatever my inclinations as a native of Missouri might have been, as president I know this is bad. I shall fight to end evils like this.″
The president appointed a committee to study civil rights abuses and later supported the panel’s call for anti-lynching and anti-poll tax legislation. He also ordered the desegregation of the armed forces and became the first president to campaign in Harlem. As a result, he was denounced by his old Southern Democratic allies.
Some of Truman’s racist attitudes surfaced after he left the White House. He continued to use racial insults and opposed the 1960s sit-ins and said they might be Communist-inspired. He called Northerners who went on Freedom Rides meddlers and The Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. a troublemaker.
A 1947 report by the Truman administration titled To Secure These Rights presented a detailed ten-point agenda of civil rights reforms. In February 1948, the president submitted a civil rights program to Congress that proposed creating several federal offices dedicated to issues such as voting rights and fair employment practices. This caused a storm of criticism from southern Democrats in the runup to the national nominating convention, but Truman refused to compromise, saying: “My forebears were Confederates… but my very stomach turned over when I had learned that Negro soldiers, just back from overseas, were being dumped out of Army trucks in Mississippi and beaten.”
Tales of the abuse, violence, and persecution suffered by many African American veterans upon their return from World War II infuriated Truman. These abuses were a major factor in his decision to issue Executive Order 9981 in July 1948 that required equal opportunity in the armed forces.In the early 1950s after several years of planning, recommendations, and revisions between Truman, the Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity, and the various branches of the military, the services became racially integrated.
″Whatever my inclinations as a native of Missouri might have been, as president I know this is bad,″ he said, ″I shall fight to end evils like this.″- President Harry Truman
Executive Order 9980 in 1948, made it illegal to discriminate against persons applying for civil service positions based on race. A third order issued in 1951, established the Committee on Government Contract Compliance (CGCC). This committee guaranteed defense contractors did not discriminate because of race.
When Truman signed Executive Order 9981 on July 26, 1948, he declared “there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion or national origin.” That same day, he also signed an executive order to desegregate the federal workforce.
“The main difficulty with the South is they are living eighty years behind the times and the sooner they come out of it the better it will be for the country and themselves. I am not asking for social equality, because no such thing exists, but I am asking for equality of opportunity for all human beings, and, as long as I stay here, I am going to continue that fight.” – August 18, 1948
“As Americans, we believe that every man should be free to live his life as he wishes. He should be limited only by his responsibility to his fellow countrymen. If this freedom is to be more than a dream, each man must be guaranteed equality of opportunity. The only limit to an American’s achievement should be his ability, his industry, and his character.” In the speech, Truman emphasized: “When I say all Americans, I mean all Americans.”
Truman’s comments on various matters illustrated his understanding of government, politics, and society. They also made great newspaper headlines and quotes.
“When even one American – who has done nothing wrong – is forced by fear to shut his mind and close his mouth – then all Americans are in peril.”
“You know that being an American is more than a matter of where your parents came from. It is a belief that all men are created free and equal and that everyone deserves an even break.”
“I have no desire to crow over anybody or to see anybody eating crow, figuratively or otherwise. We should all get together and make a country in which everybody can eat turkey whenever he pleases.”
“The human-animal cannot be trusted for anything good except en masse. The combined thought and action of the whole people of any race, creed or nationality, will always point in the right direction.”
“Republicans approve of the American farmer, but they are willing to help him go broke. They stand four-square for the American home—but not for housing. They are strong for labor—but they are stronger for restricting labor’s rights. They favor minimum wage—the smaller the minimum wage the better. They endorse educational opportunity for all—but they won’t spend money for teachers or for schools. They think modern medical care and hospitals are fine—for people who can afford them … They think American standard of living is a fine thing—so long as it doesn’t spread to all the people. And they admire the Government of the United States so much that they would like to buy it.” – October 13, 1948
“Whenever a fellow tells me he’s bipartisan, I know he’s going to vote against me.”
“Carry the battle to them. Don’t let them bring it to you. Put them on the defensive and don’t ever apologize for anything.”
“There is nothing new in the world except the history you do not know.”
“Men make history and not the other way around. In periods where there is no leadership, society stands still. Progress occurs when courageous, skillful leaders seize the opportunity to change things for the better.”
“Study men, not historians.”
“In reading the lives of great men, I found that the first victory they won was over themselves… self-discipline with all of them came first.”
“Most of the problems a President has to face have their roots in the past.”
On the Presidency…
“The buck stops here!”
“If you can’t stand the heat, get out of the kitchen.”
“Those who want the Government to regulate matters of the mind and spirit are like men who are so afraid of being murdered that they commit suicide to avoid assassination.”
“When you get to be President, there are all those things, the honors, the twenty-one-gun salutes, all those things. You have to remember it isn’t for you. It’s for the Presidency.”
“A President needs political understanding to run the government, but he may be elected without it.”
“A president either is constantly on top of events or, if he hesitates, events will soon be on top of him. I never felt that I could let up for a moment.”
“If I hadn’t been President of the United States, I probably would have ended up a piano player in a bawdy house.”
“America was not built on fear. America was built on courage, on imagination, and an unbeatable determination to do the job at hand.”
“It’s a recession when your neighbor loses his job; it’s a depression when you lose yours.”
“It is understanding that gives us an ability to have peace. When we understand the other fellow’s viewpoint, and he understands ours, then we can sit down and work out our differences.”
“I do not believe there is a problem in this country or the world today which could not be settled if approached through the teaching of the Sermon on the Mount.”
I ask the question because for much of the past week (February 14 to February 20) some Texans have been without power, clean water, and natural gas. As we thaw out, we are confronted with broken pipes, water damage, and other problems.
What better time to forget your problems and settle into a comfortable chair with a eBook.
I would be happy to add your eBook to the list with the link you want. There should be a common topic for the book listed. eg don’t include a children’s book on a site devoted to historical non-fiction. Perhaps you might try the same idea on your author webpage. I would be happy to receive your comments etc. on this idea.
The Professor and the Madman is a biographical film based on the book The Surgeon of Crowthorne or The Professor and the Madman by Simon Winchester.
The movie is about Professor James Murray (Mel Gibson), who became director of an Oxford University Press project in 1879, The New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (now known as the Oxford English Dictionary), and the man who became his friend and colleague, W. C. Minor (Sean Penn), a retired U. S. Army surgeon who submitted more than 10,000 entries while he was confined at Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum at Crowthorne, England.
William Chester Minor, a retired U. S. Army surgeon, suffered from the delusion that he was being pursued by a killer. During an episode in London, Minor killed an innocent stranger, George Merrett. He was tried in 1872, found not guilty because of insanity, and sent to Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum.
Doctor Brayne (Stephen Dillane) meets Minor at Broadmoor. Minor saves a guard’s life by amputating the man’s leg. Filled with guilt, Minor asks that most of his army pension be given to Eliza Merrett (Natalie Dormer), his victim’s widow. A prison guard, Muncie (Eddie Marsan), became an intermediary between Minor and Mrs. Merrett. Muncie delivers the offer Mrs. Merrett who refuses the pension. Brayne promises to protect him from his imagined pursuer, gives him room to paint, and allows him access to his library of rare books.
In Oxford, James Murray interviews for a position as editor of the Oxford English Dictionary. Murray was a self-taught scholar who left school at fourteen and had no degree. His application is criticized by some members of the Oxford University Press oversight committee is skeptical of Murray’s credentials, he is selected for the overwhelming task.
An oversight committee board member believes that “all words are valid in the language. Ancient or new, obsolete, or robust on, foreign-born or homegrown. The book must inventory every word, every nuance, every twist of etymology, and every possible illustrated citation from every English author. All of it or nothing at all.”
Murray has a solution to this intimidating assignment. He suggests that the project should enlist volunteers from everywhere English is spoken. He wrote an appeal to English-speaking people around the world and asked them to send their contributions on slips of paper. Booksellers, librarians, and newsagents distributed the request.
Muncie brings Christmas dinner to the Merretts. Finally, Eliza Merrett asks to see Minor and accepts his financial support. Minor says his life belongs to her.
Muncie and the guards give Minor a book that contains Murray’s appeal. Minor tells Brayne that he will be “all right” with this work and more books. Soon a volume of slips fills his room. Minor submits 1,000 slips to Murray and offers to take on the most elusive words, giving his address as “Crowthorne.” The slips are sent to Murray and the two men begin to correspond.
Murray makes an unexpected visit to Broadmoor. He carries a bundle of words for Minor, who Murray believes is a staff member. When Murray sees the manacles, he is not unsettled. “You are not alone—consanguineous”, he says. The word “consanguineous” means having the same lineage or origin or having a common ancestor. In this instance, I believe Murray uses the word to tell Minor that they kindred spirits and that Minor is not alone. Brayne encourages Murray’s visits.
The Professor and the Madman is an extraordinary tale of madness, genius, and the incredible obsessions of two remarkable men that led to the development of the Oxford English Dictionary.
The book was praised by the New York Times Magazine as “masterfully researched and eloquently written” and “the linguistic detective story of the decade.” the movie received poor reviews. On the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 43%, based 30 reviews, with an average rating of 5.50/10. On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 25 out of 100, based on four critics, indicating “generally unfavorable reviews.” Nick Allen of RogerEbert.com gave the film 1½ out of 4 stars, calling it “the latest fiasco in bad movie history… the presence of Gibson and his co-star Sean Penn give the project a stuffy sanctimoniousness.”
See the movie or read the book to learn about the history of the dictionary
Her inauguration speech The Hill We Climb was amazing. I’m not going to bore you with her vita which is available at Amanda Gorman. For those of you who missed her reading of The Hill We Climb you can find the words on NewsNation and other sites.
Ms. Gorman, thank you for you words of hope and inspiration in these difficult times. May you have a wonderful and honored career.
President Biden’s address to the nation and its emphasis on unity and resolution of differences suggested to me that Americans had many choices that will determine the fate of our democracy. For us to work together to solve the many challenges facing our country, we must examine our values and choose the “right” ones.
By April 1861, the United States had gone from the crisis of secession to the calamity of civil war. Colonel Charles F. Smith was en route from Utah to New York City to assume the post of Superintendent of the Eastern Department of the General Services at Fort Columbus, New York. However, before he began his post in New York, he was sent to Washington to command the Department of Washington.
Colonel Smith reached the capital at eleven o’clock on April 6. Later that day, General Winfield Scott issued Special Orders No. 58 assigning Smith “to the command of all troops stationed in this city and at Fort Washington.
From his room at the Willard Hotel, Smith wrote to his wife Fanny: “My command at present consists of six companies are at Fort Washington (some 14 miles below this on the Potomac); 2 field batteries; a troop of the dragoons and 2 companies of Artillery, serving as Infantry which will soon be increased by several companies of horse and foot.”
On April 14, Smith’s friend Major Robert Anderson surrendered the garrison at Fort Sumter. After the surrender of Fort Sumter, many Americans expected the first real battle of the war would be fought over Washington. The union capital was surrounded by the slave states of Maryland and Virginia and lacked troops and fortifications. The city was guarded by 1,500 soldiers, marines, and militia. The only aid the city might receive came from the 75,000 volunteers President Lincoln requested on April 15.
Smith’s status was clarified on April 11 in Special Orders No. 102, which stated, “The 10 companies of militia called out and mustered into service of the United States in obedience to orders from the President, dated War Department, April 9, 1861, will be placed under the command of Bvt. Colonel C. F. Smith, commanding the Department of Washington.
On April 15, Scott told President Abraham Lincoln that “Col. Smith, the commander of the Department of Washington, like myself, thinks our means of defense, with vigilance, are sufficient to hold this till reinforcements arrive.”
The military leaders focused the city’s defense on three key sites: The Capitol; the Old City Hall area, which included the White House, Patent Office, and buildings containing the War, Navy, State, and Treasury departments; and Treasury Building the places were strengthened to withstand a ten-day siege and soldiers were stationed inside the buildings at night.”
Smith quickly put a plan of action to effect. He ordered Captain Kings Company I 1st Infantry to “take post at the Arsenal” and Brevet Major J. A. Haskins First Artillery to “proceed with his company as soon as practicable to Fort Washington.” In General Orders No. 4 on April 16, he designated “Col. Charles P. Stone, Inspector-General of the Militia of the District of Columbia” to command the “companies of volunteers from the District of Columbia now being mustard.”
On April 16, Smith wrote to Fanny, “Every disposition has been made constantly for defense.”
The government has been so tardy in its operations that we are now virtually surrounded by thousands of armed men, whilst I with a small force of volunteers (comparatively) are standing on the defensive. I hate this being cooped up. Oh! If I only had my old Utah force. But regrets are vain. I expect an attack tonight; the first occasion I have thought such a thing might occur although the military precautions I have taken many nights [and] have been of such a character to frighten timid people. I have sat in my office for the last three nights getting about two hours sleep in a chair and this with exercise of brain and body has much worried me – tho’ all say I never looked better.
By April 18th forces in Washington had increased 2 2800 two 3200 men composed of 1000 men from the army and Marines 1200 to 1500 men from the District of Columbia militia and 600 to 700 Pennsylvania volunteers “in poor order.”
To learn more about General Smith and his role in the Civil War, please see buy thebook at Amazon.
Congratulations to Martellus Bennett and Malcolm Mitchell for writing books which encourage children to want to read. Their efforts are very important to all authors because the children to read Bennett and Mitchell’s stories become adult readers and potential customers.
“It is, Sir, as I have said, a small college. And yet there are those who love it.” – Daniel Webster about Dartmouth College
“… when I called him to that station I was almost a stranger to him personally, having never seen him but once or twice, and knew nothing of his opinions on this [annexation] or scarcely any other subject. I approved him because he had the character of possessing great ability and honesty.” – President Anson Jones on his prior knowledge of Mr. Allen
“You are well aware of the fact that I have from the beginning been decidedly opposed to the Annexation of Texas to the United States. It is my first object to defeat, if possible, the consummation of this most obnoxious measure, so decidedly hostile, as I conceive it to be, and fraught with such evil consequences to the ultimate prosperity and high destiny of this Country. If I am successful in the accomplishment of this great result, I shall consider it the proudest period of my life.” – Ebenezer Allen on Annexation of Texas to the United States
“The final act in this great drama is now performed: the Republic of Texas is no more.” – Anson Jones on Annexation of Texas to the United States
“The importance of the measure and its incalculable influence on and among the value of our lands, developing the resources; promoting the prosperity and increasing the wealth of our State, if successfully consummated, can not [sic] be questioned.”– Ebenezer Allen’s application for a charter to build the Galveston and Red River Railroad
“On asking ‘who was present’! – the reply by the alphabet was, ‘Lafitte’ He went on to tell us that there was a large treasure buried in the back yard of Dr. McGuire’s house, – that the money was stolen from him by some of the men in his employ and concealed in that place – (probably while he occupied this island). He directed us to search for it and said we could obtain it and he wished us to do so. Said it would take a man two days and (as I understood) part of another to dig it out. Said it was six feet below the surface; also that he would show the spot by causing the table to march to it and stand over it. On Wednesday last (9th inst) the ladies, my wife being present, tried the experiment at Dr. McGuire’s. The table (a small four legged one of the ordinary form) immediately after moving, commenced a regular walk, moving a side at a time and moving forward through the back door and along the walk upon the ground about 15 or 20 feet then turned at right angles, to the right and advanced through the grass and shrubbery to a small figtree [sic], which it went around and stopped on the other side of it some 5 minutes. It then started again very suddenly and advanced about 6 or 8 feet further and remained stationary under a large figtree [sic]. Upon inquiry, it said ‘the table stood directly over the money.’ On the evening of the 10th inst I went to Ms. McGuires [sic] at her request, who shew [sic] me the places where the table stopped, and I struck my walking stick into the ground making a small hole at each place. The statement was confirmed by what purported to by other spirits.” – Ebenezer Allen on Lafitte’ treasure
“The flame ever springs from the dust of the slain Where Milam hath fallen and Travis hath bled! Then haste, lady, haste, for the soft breezes play To waft the swift bark o’er the billows away, Not to climes where the relics of cities are strown [sic], And gray ruin points to the glory that’s gone. No! Not to the time honoured [sic] retreats of the east, Where sighs the dim shade of imperial power, But blithely where freedom anew spreads her feast, And invites to the land of the star and the flower!” – Mrs. Ebenezer (Sylvinia) Allen on Texas
“For, engraven [sic] on tablets more lasting than stone, I read − “Man shall never be happy alone!” How thrilled then my pulses with raptures untold When my Bird flew towards me on pinions of gold, And entranced with her notes, as from bow’rs [bowers] of the blest, I wooed her forever to dwell in my breast.” – Ebenezer Allen “A Retrospect to his Wife“
Meanwhile, I am working on a new fiction book based on the events taking place in America in 2020. So far I have over 62,000 words and, thankfully, no footnotes, bibliography, or index.
On a completely different topic, I have been working with a colleague on a petition to change Fort Hood to Fort Oveta Culp Hobby. Please check out the Change.org page to read about this amazing lady. Also see #RenameFortHoodtoFortHobby.
There seems to be an idea supported by President Trump that we should not change the names of U.S. military bases. I question the belief that the names of these bases are etched in stone never to change and that the United States does not have many post-1865 heroes.
Names of public places are changed all of the time. In some cases, it is because the building is used for other purposes, the mission of the organization has changed, or people forget why the building was named that way. I am not talking about monuments which as I have said in the past are an issue that each community should resolve. We have plenty of heroes in the past 150 plus years. When are we going to honor them?
General John Bell Hood
Let’s consider Fort Hood in Texas. General John Bell Hood had mixed reviews during his time in command of Confederate troops. He was praised for his actions in the Penninsula Campaign but criticized for his actions in the battles around Atlanta and Nashville. This may have to do with the wear and tear on his body and loss of limbs. Incidentally, he was doing exactly what his commander-in-chief Jeff Davis wanted in the Atlanta Campaign. Davis replaced Joe Johnston with Hood and ordered John Bell to fight.
Here are some Texans who might be worthy of replacing Hood.
George Lawson Keene – Most decorated American soldier in WW I
Audie Murphy – Most decorated U.S. soldier in WW II
Staff Sergeant Marcario Garcia – Medal of Honor, WW II Garcia became the first Mexican immigrant to win the nation’s highest award for valor.
Master Sergeant Roy Benevidez
Roy Benavidez – Medal of Honor, Vietnam – He made Rambo seem like a wimp – amazing story – Please read Roy Benavidez’s story
Oveta Culp Hobby – Colonel Women’s Army Corps, first secretary of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
Major General Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower – Army general and statesman who served as the 34th president of the United States from 1953 to 1961. During World War II, he became a five-star general in the Army and served as the Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force in Europe. He was responsible for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43 and the successful invasion of Normandy in 1944–45 from the Western Front.
Chester Nimitz – commander of Allied naval forces in Pacific during World War II
Doris “Dorie” Miller – Navy Cross for valor at Pearl Harbor
David “Tex” Hill – Naval aviator, Flying Tiger ace, immortal fighter pilot
In the last few days, I have read two erroneous statements made about the Emancipation Proclamation and Union soldiers fighting to end slavery.
In an article about Juneteenth, a reporter wrote that on June 19, 1865, that Union General Granger arrived in Galveston, Texas and told the slaves that by virtue of the Emancipation Proclamation, they were free. An article in USA Today said, “On June 19, Americans around the country will celebrate Juneteenth, a holiday commemorating the Emancipation Proclamation in the USA.” The article was later corrected to: “Correction: An earlier version of this story misstated Juneteenth’s relation to slavery. It celebrates the Emancipation Proclamation, but the Emancipation Proclamation didn’t apply to all states in the USA. The 13th Amendment brought an end to slavery.” Thanks for the correction. To learn more about this celebration, please read the 2015 Juneteenth Celebrated with Joy, Sorrow, and Courage. To learn more about the Emancipation Proclamation and laws dealing with Black Rights, please read Lincoln Freed the Slaves and Other Myths.
In President Trump’s commencement speech to West Point cadets on June 13, 2020, the President referred to West Pointers who fought in the Civil War. However, he only referred to those West Point graduates who fought for the Union between 1861 and 1865. Trump called them, “American patriots … who fought a bloody war to extinguish the evil of slavery within one lifetime of our founding.” Let’s review the reasons why we fought the Civil War. For a brief overview, please read the Causes of the Civil War. There are many reasons why we fought this war and they differ depending on where you stood in the military hierarchy.
U. S. Grant
Government: Preserve the Union and Put Down the Rebellion
Officers: Preserve the Union, Advance in the Military, and Enhance Their Resume (political officers)
Soldiers: Preserve the Union, Avoid Condemnation from Community, Friendship, and Participate in a Great Adventure (“See the Elephant”)
No one fought to free the slaves!
Government: Preserve Slavery as the Foundation of their Wealth and Maintain Southern Society. The initial statements from seceding states sited preserving slavery as the primary reason. Please read Why Virginia Seceded.
Officers: Loyalty to State Rather Than Country (Lee refused position to lead Union Army because he would not fight against Virginia), Defend Confederacy from the North (South named war the War of Northern Aggression), Preserve Family Wealth, and Enhance Personal and Family Reputation
Soldiers: Defend Confederacy from the North (South named war the War of Northern Aggression), Avoid Condemnation from Community, Friendship, and Participate in a Great Adventure (“See the Elephant”). Not to defend slaveowners’ rights (“It’s a rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight)
Lee and his Generals
Update and Correction
I received an interesting response concerning my statement “No one fought to free the slaves!” My comment was way too broad. I would rephrase it to read “Most Northerners did not fight to end slavery, but to save the Union.” My original comment was based on things I have read which indicated this was a widespread attitude. Certainly, US Colored Troops fought to end slavery. Of course, I don’t know what every Union soldier thought. I would point out the New York City draft riots in which Blacks were killed.
Union Soldiers Condemn Slavery – “Although the attitudes of many white Union soldiers toward slavery and emancipation ranged from indifference to outright racial hostility, others viewed the issue as central to their participation in the war. The following quotations, taken from letters, diary entries, and contemporary newspaper interviews with white Union soldiers, reveal the attitudes of those who viewed slavery as both a primary cause of the conflict and a key rationale for fighting.”
Why White Soldiers Fought to End Slavery – “Historians agree that most Union Army soldiers, no matter what their national origin, fought to restore the unity of the United States, but emphasize that: “… they became convinced that this goal was unattainable without striking against slavery.” - James M. McPherson, For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War, p. 118. McPherson’s book adds that witnessing the Southern slave system first-hand significantly strengthened the anti-slavery views of white Union soldiers, leaving them appalled by the system’s brutality: “Experience in the South reinforced the antislavery sentiments of many soldiers. One Pennsylvanian Union soldier spoke to a slave woman whose husband was whipped, and was appalled by what she had to tell him of slavery. He stated that “I thought I had hated slavery as much as possible before I came here, but here, where I can see some of its workings, I am more than ever convinced of the cruelty and inhumanity of the system.” – Ibid., pp. 36-37.
The Civil War Was About Slavery. Confederate Leaders Were Totally Clear On This. – “I would save the Union,” Lincoln wrote. As for enslaved Africans, they were just pawns in his war strategy: “If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it. … What I do about Slavery and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save this Union.” This link contains quotes by Confederate leaders on slavery.
Dallas businessman and philanthropist, Cary M. Maguire passed away at age 93 on August 10, 2021. Mr. Maguire was born in Ardmore, Pennsylvania on May 30, 1928. He attended the Landon School and graduated from the Wharton School of The University of Pennsylvania with a BS in Economics in 1950. After college, he joined his father in the oil business and moved to Wichita Falls, Texas in 1951 to open a Texas office. Cary married Ann Thompson Maguire on February 27, 1960.
It is difficult not to associate Mr. Maguire with Southern Methodist University. Cary was a major benefactor of the University and served on SMU’s Board of Trustees. A building at the Cox School of Business bears his name. In 1974, Cary founded the Maguire Oil and Gas Institute and established the Maguire Chair in Oil and Gas Management in the Cox School. His commitment to ethics led him to establish the Cary M. Maguire Center for Ethics and Public Responsibility at SMU. The Center offers University-wide ethics-related education and activities to students and faculty. He founded the Cary and Ann Maguire Chair in American History and Ethics at the Library of Congress and funded the Maguire Fellow in Applied Ethics at The American College.
I met Mr. Maguire in 1990 when I was appointed Director of the Maguire Oil and Gas Institute. Cary was a hands-on benefactor and served as Chairman of the Institute’s Board of Advisors. During my time as Director, under Cary’s direction and support, the Institute launched a web page containing numerous oil and gas industry statistics and news. I established an oil and library in the Cox School to provide access to students and faculty. I also published an Institute newsletter with industry stories and an editorial column. The Institute began a series of conferences on various issues facing the energy industry. We also established the Oil and Gas Education Initiative to explain various parts of the oil and gas industry to academics, government employees, and journalists. It may seem to be bragging, but these accomplishments are more a tribute to Mr. Maguire’s guidance and support. When I suggested to Mr. Maguire that we should rename the Institute The Maguire Energy Institute, Cary liked the more inclusive name.
Some of my colleagues at SMU felt Cary was too demanding. I never saw this side. If you said something would be done, Cary expected you to get it done and get it done right. Cary had a dry sense of humor which I enjoyed over lunches at the Dallas Petroleum Club. However, more than any other trait, Cary was an ethical man who believed that ethics is the foundation of personal integrity.
It’s been over twenty-five years since I talked to Cary, but his lessons of hard work, commitment, honesty, and ethics have been the essence of my creed. Thank you, Mr. Maguire.